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Endurance Training Machines (ETM)
From: FM 7-22 October 2012


When using ETM there are four primary variables to consider: exercise mode, training frequency, exercise duration, and training intensity. Exercise prescription specifies training frequency, exercise duration, and training intensity. The mode of exercise (type of ETM) is determined by environmental constraints and/or training according to physical profile limitations (temporary/permanent). Each ETM contains specific instructions for proper use and adjustments for the Soldier to obtain optimal posture during endurance exercise (seat height on cycle ergometers or seat distance on rowing machines). If the ETM has no visible list of operating instructions, ask the PRT leader or AI for assistance (Figure 10-12).


Exercise mode refers to the specific activity performed by the Soldier: running, cycling, swimming, and the use of a variety of endurance training equipment. There are advantages to using endurance training equipment (environmental constraints, safety for Soldiers on physical profile, and isolation of specific muscle groups to be trained during rehabilitation and reconditioning). Consideration for use of specific types of equipment may be based on the Soldier’s ability to participate in weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing activities. Weight-bearing activities include walking or running on a treadmill and using a stair climbing/stepping machine. Non-weight-bearing and limited weight-bearing activities include use of cycle ergometers (upright/recumbent) elliptical trainers, rowers, climbing machines, and cross-country ski machines. Use of limited or non-weight-bearing endurance training equipment is desirable for obtaining higher caloric expenditure through additional training sessions by overweight Soldiers trying to reduce body fat. Each of these modes typically provide the Soldier with a variety of individual exercise routines that monitor and display exercise duration, training intensity (heart rate/pace/watts), caloric expenditure, and distance completed (miles/km). See Figure 10-12 for examples of various types of endurance training equipment.

Figure 10-12. Endurance training machines


Training frequency refers to the number of training sessions conducted per day or per week. Training frequency is determined by exercise duration and training intensity. Training sessions that involve high intensity or longer duration may necessitate less frequent training to allow for adequate recovery. Normal endurance training frequency is three to five exercise sessions per week.


Exercise duration is 20 minutes or longer and varies from machine to machine, depending on the intensity of the exercise routine being performed (hill profile, speed, degree of incline, resistance). Most exercise sessions of high or moderate intensity should last 20 to 30 minutes. Endurance exercise sessions that address additional caloric expenditure for body fat reduction should be of low intensity and may last up to 60 minutes.


Training intensity is typically monitored and displayed on the exercise equipment control panel in terms of heart rate, pace (mph/kph, step rate), watts, kiloponds, caloric expenditure (kcals), or resistance.


From: FM 7-22 October 2012 

  (Page last modified Feb 2, 2013) is dedicated to providing all the information you need to conduct the Army Physical Readiness Training as an individual or with a unit.  Everything you need from FM 7-22 is right here.
Chapter 1 Approach
Chapter 2 System
Chapter 3 Leadership
Chapter 4 Types of Programs
Chapter 5 Planning Considerations
Chapter 6 Special Conditioning Programs
Chapter 7 Execution of Training
Chapter 8 Preparation and Recovery
Chapter 9 Strength and Mobility Activities
Chapter 10 Endurance and Mobility Activities
Appendix A Army Physical Fitness Test
Appendix B Climbing Bars
Appendix C Posture and Body Mechanics
Appendix D Environmental Considerations
Appendix E Obstacle Negotiation
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